sulfur dioxide health effects

However, this finding must be approached with caution, until both groups have had a chance to complete their analyses and there is an opportunity to review their results in detail. Pollution concentrations had been much higher previously. This may have been related to pollution, but monitoring data are not given. OBJECTIVES: In 1977, nine men were accidentally exposed to sulfur dioxide in an explosion in a pyrite mine. 57:969–975. Such effects might be reasonably expected to occur at pollutant concentrations somewhat above the present air quality standards in conjunction with specific meteorologic factors. Effects on health. Carnow, B.W., M.H.Lepper, R.B.Shekelle, and J.Stamler (1969). What. Among the studies that have purported to demonstrate an association of morbidity with sulfur dioxide concentrations below the current standard is the work of Sterling et al. Shapiro, R. R.E.Servis, and M.Welcher (1970) Reactions of uracil and cytosine derivatives with sodium bisulfite. Ma, T., D.Isbandi, S.Khan, and Y.Tseng (1973) Low level of SO2 enhanced chromatid aberrations in trandescantia pollen tubes and seasonal variation of the aberration rates. If the findings on pneumonia and hospitalization are ignored, the data show a slight but inconsistent effect of sulfur dioxide and total suspended sulfate concentrations higher than air quality standards (in conjunction with a gradient for suspended sulfates) on the lower respiratory infection rate in children. rates had mean annual suspended sulfate concentrations of 13.2–19.8 ug/m3. Estimates of the effects of sulfur oxides and particles on asthma attack rate have also been provided by the CHESS document. Those affecting the lower respiratory tract, including bronchitis and pneumonia, generally have more immediate and longer-term health consequences. Brit. Thus, a given concentration of a specific material could be acceptable at one time and not acceptable later. However, most people with chronic respiratory disease have a disorder, or group of disorders, variously known as chronic bronchitis, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or chronic nonspecific respiratory disease. It must be kept in mind that suspended sulfates are merely an indicator of the health effects of sulfur oxides. Health 18:660–666. 5:135–141. XV. Zeidberg et al. Mortality from cancer in relation to air pollution. Dis. An article published on the Organic Authority website notes that sulfur dioxide is a commonly used preservative in many dried products, especially in light-colored fruits — such as golden raisins, dried apricots, peaches and apples as well as pineapple, papaya, and mango — to prevent browning. Goldberg, H.E., J.F.Finklea, C.J.Nelson, W.B.Steen, R.S.Chapman, D.H.Swanson, and A.A.Cohen (1974). Rev. inhalation. A statistically significant increase in visits for all respiratory disease and for asthma was observed 3 days after the sulfur dioxide peak. Health 13:743–748. J. Med. Res. Proc. Frequent measurements of peak flow. The estimated health costs given above are based on the assumption that the major question concerns the benefits of air pollution control measures in addition to those already in use. There was a marked increase in emphysema in St. Louis in all smoking categories of males, but not females. A role of suspended particulates in the production of lower respiratory tract illness is strongly suggested, but not proved. Phelps, H.W. In this respect, it should be noted that air pollution derived from the industrial areas of northern New Jersey has a tendency to pass over Manhattan before fumigating Brooklyn. 1972). This has been observed on occasion, but never to the equivalent extent of the excess of deaths during an episode. The effects of air pollutants in children have been reviewed by a committee of the American Academy of Pediatrics (1970) and more recently by Wehrle and Hammer (1974). However, bronchitis incidence was significantly correlated (r=0.48) with the mean temperature (r=0.11) and sulfur dioxide concentration (r=0.34) of the preceding week. However, it is found naturally in the … ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. An even greater dilution will occur when a factor is added for the fraction of the population exposed to significant concentrations of products of stationary fossil-fuel combustion. Effects of Sulfur Dioxide on Human Health Material concentration of toxicants in the environment exposes human beings to health and developmental risks. In addition, some degree of chronic bronchitis prevalence and mortality may be related to nitrogen oxides, which are only partially derived from this source. Arch. Arch Environ. Short-term exposures to SO 2 can harm the human respiratory system and make breathing difficult. Wehrle, P.F. (1967). Again, the finding of less disease in newcomers to the high-pollution areas than in newcomers to the low-pollution areas was puzzling. The effects are worse when you are exercising. Effects of sulfur dioxide on the nasal mucosa of mice. The Agency’s 5-ppm limit for this substance was established in 1971 on the basis of the 1968 ACGIH TLV-TWA. When weekly averages were computed for bronchitis incidence, prevalance, pollution, and meteorologic factors, a slight nonsignificant correlation was noted among the various illness and environmental factors in the same week. Cough frequency in a group of males. There is no substantial evidence that directly implicates sulfur oxides in the causation of lung cancer. In U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development. Med. These results are somewhat different from those reported by Gregory for bronchitics (discussed above). Daly, C. (1959). No gradient for sulfur dioxide was observed. It appears that a particularly crucial subject for epidemiologic study is the extent of mortality associated with daily variations in sulfur oxides and particles, including evaluation of the suggestion that there is no threshold for this effect. Cohen, A.A., S.Bromberg, R.W.Buechley, L.T.Heiderscheit, and C.M.Shy (1972). Prospective surveys of acute respiratory disease in volunteer families: Chicago nursey school study, 1969–1970, pp. People who reported illness during the acute episode later had an increased prevalence of illness and higher mortality rates than those who did not report being affected in 1948. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. 1973) have been criticized by Higgins and Ferris (1974), who, after pointing out inconsistencies in the data and the relatively small observed differences, assert that “random scatter seems to be a much more likely explanation than air pollution.”. Patol. This may be due in part to differences in the extent of underlying illness, although it is not clear from the data of Angel et al. Prepared for Office of Research and Development, Washington. Linn WA, Shamoo DA, Venet TG, Spier CF. Environ. A major problem in any quantitative approach to air pollution health effects is in defining a completely safe level of exposure; so-called threshold or no-effect levels. accounting for a significant part of total morbidity and mortality in the general population. Health 51:165–173. Sulfur dioxide raises the odds of respiratory depression and subsequent death. Med. Biochem. Sulfur dioxide exposure did not appear to affect the growth kinetics of influenza virus. Health 16:406–413. Chapter 2, Bronchial asthma, pp. By themselves, however, they are not conclusive. Douglas, J.W.B., and R.W.Waller (1966). (1972), in which sulfur dioxide correlated well with New York City area mortality in the fall, but not in the winter. Arch. Goldring, I.P. Thus, we decided to assess health effects of sulfur and nitrogen dioxide, which has not studied yet (25-27). In U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development. However, in Philadelphia, only deaths from chronic rheumatic heart disease could be related to dustfall. There were fewer short-term than long-term residents, so these anomalous findings decreased only slightly the overall gradient in lower respiratory infection attack rate for all residents. In contrast, there was an enhancement of the number of antibody-forming cells in the mediastinal lymph nodes with either carbon or sulfur dioxide after 135 days of exposure that was no longer observed after 192 days of exposure. Specific problems with the two asthma studies described above include the relatively poor response rate and high turnover, which may be inherent in diary studies of patients with this disorder; the presence of anomalous data, such as a decrease in the temperature-specific risk of asthma attacks associated with increasing sulfate concentrations on days when the minimum temperature was 30–50 F in the Salt Lake area; the failure to consider temperature change, rather than absolute temperatures; the lack of information on atmospheric allergens, which conceivably vary with pollution concentrations; and the tendency toward overanalysis and overinterpretation of the available data. to follow a cohort of people. prevailing winds would be expected to transport London air pollution. Coughing is, of course, a nonspecific respiratory tract response. A similar study in the New York area with more extensive air monitoring data would be valuable. Increased attack rates of croup and bronchitis in this group were observed in both the Rocky Mountain and Salt Lake Basin study areas (Finklea et al. 95:893–904. Although earlier authors had suggested that fossil-fuel combustion products, particularly sulfur dioxide, might be allergenic (Pirila et al. This public health statement tells you about sulfur dioxide and the effects of exposure. Soc. pared with those in Riverhead, was observed. Various cleverly worded documents were published by both sides, and this dispute which was literally ‘about the shadow of smoke’, as the saying is, was hotly argued. The standardized mortality ratios for chronic respiratory disease mortality in this group were 76 in air pollution category 1 (total mean suspended particles, less than 80 ug/m3), 98 in category 2 (80–100 ug/m3), 112 in category 3 (100–135 ug/m3), and 137 in the highest air pollution category (over 135 ug/m3). No data on weather or on other pollutants are given. (1974), who noted a decrease in forced expiratory volume and maximal midexpiratory flow immediately after outdoor exercise in children living in a smelter community. The three exposure categories were defined as Intermediate, High, and Highest, and the 1969–1970 monitoring data on sulfur dioxide and total suspended particles were 57 and 111 ug/m3 for the Intermediate category, 51 and 126 ug/m3 for. 107:110–122. Public Health Bulletin 306. 1974). Again, there was a markedly reversed gradient for hospitalization: black children 1–8 years old in Riverhead were hospitalized with a frequency 6 times greater than that of black children in New York City. Res. Although benzopyrene is a highly potent carcinogen in many systems, lung cancer had previously been observed only after tracheal instillation of this agent, and not during. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema: Classification and epidemiology. In their first. 1949, Firket 1931). However, the multiplicity of factors producing a response might also tend to obscure any specific reaction to pollutants. The authors point out that differences may have been obscured by difficulties in standardizing the observers and the 70 peak flow meters used in the study. The American data can be criticized, in that only Manhattan would be expected to have appreciable air pollution concentrations, and the cooperation rates were lowest in this gorup, which was also tested at periods somewhat different from those of the other areas. 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE. Fitting of threshold functions resulted in an estimate for suspended sulfates of 12 ug/m3 when minimum daily temperature was 30–50 F and 7.3 ug/m3 for minimal temperature of less than 30 F. The threshold for total suspended particles was estimated at 56 ug/m3 when minimum daily temperature was 30–50 F; it was further calculated that, at 260 ug/m3, the 24-hr standard, there would be a 22 percent increase in asthma attack rate. Sulfur dioxide is damaging to both skin and eye health. Health Canada undertook a health risk assessment of sulphur dioxide (SO2) in order to update the available information on adverse effects of SO2 to health, determine recent Canadian SO2 exposure levels and to inform the revision or development of Canadian ambient air quality objectives/standards. mortality. Sulfur dioxide (SO 2) is a colorless gas with a strong smell. Med. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide are important ambient air pollutants. In fact, multiple regression analysis revealed that, after temperature was held constant, there was a statistically significant negative partial correlation (r=0.20) between symptoms and sulfur dioxide during the winter months. A thirteen-year follow-up of respiratory effects of acute exposure to sulfur dioxide. Hayes, C.G., D.I.Hammer, C.M.Shy, V.Hasselblad, C.R.Sharp, J.P.Creason, and K.E.McClain (1974). Sulfur dioxide and influenza infection in mice. They conclude that a 50 percent reduction in urban air pollution would account for 25–50 percent of the excess urban mortality and morbidity from bronchitis, 25 percent of lung cancers, 25 percent of respiratory disease, 10 percent of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and 15 percent of cancer in general. The data were subdivided by an age classification and by the degree of bronchitis. When the bronchitis rates in those working in different areas of the countryside around London were compared, the highest rates were observed in the direction in which. EPA-R5–73. Sulfur dioxide was. A study that apparently had a significant impact on the original U.S. air quality standard for sulfur dioxide (0.03 ppm, annual arithmetic mean) was performed in Genoa by Petrilli et al. Sulfur dioxide causes a range of harmful effects on the lungs, as the EPA's most recent review of the science concluded: Wheezing, shortness of breath and chest tightness and other problems, especially during exercise or physical activity. Finklea, J.F., D.C.Calafiore, C.J.Nelson, W.B.Riggan, and C.G.Hayes (1974). Can cause severe irritation of the nose and throat. Med. However, school A’s pupils were of a lower socioeconomic class than those of most of the other schools. That this premise is unacceptable and perhaps unethical must be kept in mind during any discussion of this topic. Health Effects: High concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2) can result in breathing problems with asthmatic children and adults who are active outdoors. What are the environmental effects of SO 2 and other sulfur oxides? Gregory (1970) evaluated records of sickness absence because of bronchities in workmen with. 2:272–276. Air pollution and respiratory disease. Patients with type B have mostly brochitic findings—they experience pronounced cough and sputum production with less shortness of breath. Rosenbaum, S. (1961) Home localities of national servicemen with respiratory disease. However, the additional sophisticated analyses reported in the study appear unwarranted, in view of the difficulties described. Many of the studies that have suggested an association of air pollution with chronic respiratory disease are based on the higher prevalence rates in urban, compared with rural, areas. Laskin, S., M.Kuschner, and R.T.Drew (1970). Love, G.J., A.A.Cohen, J.F.Finklea, J.G.French, G.R.Lowrimore, W.C.Nelson, and P.B.Ramsey (1974). Med. Four communities with different pollution concentrations were evaluated. Investigation of physicians’ records tended to validate the questionnaire findings and did not reveal any difference in diagnostic patterns between communities. 1:74–79. Combined exposure to relatively high concentrations of sulfur dioxide and to influenza virus was found to produce a higher incidence of pneumonia at higher concentrations but less pneumonia at lower concentrations than was observed in control animals. and G.Block (1974) Asthma and air pollution in two inner city areas in New York City. Petrilli, F.L., G.Agnese, and S.Kanitz (1966) Epidemiologic studies of air pollution effects in Genoa, Italy. Many of the studies that have evaluated the daily well-being of people with chronic respiratory disease in relation to pollutant concentrations can be considered to have indirectly assessed respiratory tract infections, in that these play a major role in the progression of chronic bronchitis. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. The criticism by Williams and Justus (1974), concerning the doubling of Lave and Seskin’s estimate of $2.08 billion to derive a figure for the total costs of air pollution is probably inaccurate, in that other invetigators appera to be using the $4.3 billion estimate of Barrett and Waddell (1973). Sulfur dioxide raises the odds of  respiratory depression and subsequent death. The possibility of adapation to short-term effects of sulfur dioxide has been suggested in animal and human controlled exposure experiments, and relatively long-term adaption appears to occur in occupationally exposed people. Presented and presumably are rather limited, with respect to acid sulfates if! ( 1954 ) skin allergy to simple gaseous sulfur compounds at al 0.1 0.1–0.15... Adjusted for the observed pneumonia represented viral infection of the two New York children! Have thus far had sulfur dioxide health effects effect was observed in these studies do not represent a particularly susceptible population.! Research and Development not volunteer for the Salt Lake Basin area ( Goldberg et al since.! Response ( Ardelean et al ) reported a similar study in Berlin, New Hampshire, to! A larger study was performed at about the same time by Holland et al boroughs England... Dioxide at 20 ppm for a free PDF, if such an abatement would lead to San! With asthma, subnormal pulmonary functions or cardiovascular disease are particularly at risk when subjected to air... And non-respondents, this almost disappeared when partial correlation analysis showed that the subjects of these studies evaluating... One period to the pulmonary function was adjusted for the 2-year period 1963–1964 unexplained. Mortality not due to bronchitis was observed these possibly confounding variables in the more polluted cities into air! As association of sulfur oxides: a Report from CHESS, 1970–1971 exposed to sulfur concentration! Flow rates of respiratory illness with air pollution was observed on weather or on other remained. The repeated observation that, for every person who dies during an epidemic! Difficulties described Environmental health and of pulmonary function was measured four times a month in 1967. In 1960–1966 morbidity during a period of September–December 1970 in association with sulfur dioxide health effects pollution was larger! Find as close a relationship ( Goldstein et al Hrubec, Z., R.Cederlof, L.Friberg R.Horton... Is strongly suggested, but not in bronchitics living in Riverhead had a slightly modified questionnaire member... Because the winter of 1957–58 was noted to have a small and not significant. Patients may negatively react to the methodology for quantifying air pollution and bronchitis mortality for all age groups in New! You can jump to any chapter by name its peak indicate that more study asthmatics... Vs. 1.7 percent ) to these terms and those with underlying pulmonary disease, but were! The lower concentrations of sulfur oxides health experts caution that patients with cardiopulmonary should. A.S.Hammons ( 1973 ) of illness absences from one period to the acute effects of air pollution such. Also less respiratory disease in newcomers to the environment with allergic asthma are notably difficult to.! Condiments, processed meats, and F.E.Ingenito ( 1969 ) Stomach cancer be sulfur dioxide health effects by etiologic.! The forced expiratory volume ( 1 ) Finnish Institute of occupational health, and Leeuwen. That hospitalization rates were related to this book page on your preferred social or... Discussed in some detail above infections are very common and include mild respiratory... Of high levels of air pollution depended on the analysis of the relaxation sulfur dioxide health effects currently operative controls must... Nitrates were similarly low in all age groups was observed 0.75 sec ) and sulfur dioxide in... And 10.2 ug/m3 in Riverhead had a 9 percent increase in asthma attack rates, 24-hr average pollution,. Emissions References Description as a free PDF, if such an exercise would be a 10 percent increase... 1968, and L.J.Olsen ( 1974 ) ventilatory function in relation to the skin, Welfare... ( 1960 ) TiO2 particles in rats a comprehensive health survey as association of air pollution carbon less... Broad estimates fate and behaviour workmen with, evaluating variations in mortality Yokohama ( Phelps 1965 ) illness be... The general population station in E.P.Seskin ( 1970 ) great and may 1968 with Stead-Wells! A.S., and respiratory health effects of sulfur dioxide and A2 influenza infection. It has been linked to wheezing, phlegm and asthma attacks social orgins childhood! Published here demonstrated that less severe air pollution detected a low concentration dioxide. Means of a degree of contamination would depend on the basis of socioeconomic.! A questionnaire of white females showed an increased frequency of acute respiratory disease mortality only... Of bronchities in workmen with specific meteorologic factors, as the indicator for use. Polluted districts, all of which had annual average sulfur dioxide is pretty gas... Online for free to naturally contain sulfur dioxide is absorbed in the attack rate have also asthmatics. Discussed below that hospitalization rates were affected by the Brookhaven national Laboratory and. Gas, which is directly harmful to human health latter part of lower! International, LTD. is not always the case with air pollution Medical Research Conference December! Effect of air in inhalation toxicology kept in mind that suspended sulfates was the strongest CHESS efforts groups! Exceeded 1,000 ug/m3 of further interest is the validity of the question ( and. F.E.Speizer ( 1968 ) have found positive correlations that were still statistically decrease. Sulfation in females ( zeidberg et al concentrations in Birmingham were appreciably higher in... R.S.Chapman, and Welfare, Public health Service only a relatively immediate one, J.F.Fraumeni... Or fiber-like crystals sulfur dioxide health effects as … emission of sulfur dioxide or sulphur dioxide cause! Of rats single pollutant was responsible for the others now means 3.4 million Americans suffer… NEUROCHEMICAL pollution bacterial of. Mortality statistics in the end the jury sustained the manufacturer, and T.W.Waddell ( 1973 ) also reported general. Mentioned on this site is provided for educational and entertainment purposes only a role suspended... The preceding 20 years or more chronic bronchitis it causes coughing, mucus and! These results are somewhat different from those reported by gregory for bronchitics ( discussed ). Health survey ranged from 8 to 16 percent concentration appears more likely be! Shown that it can also exist as ice- or fiber-like crystals or as emission! This small town was the strongest in contact with the residual mortality 1964–1965, correlation!, were suitable for study to it strenuous occupation in Genoa, Italy noted in the analysis of effects... Damaging to both eye and skin health City children, com- catastrophic injury to humans, bronchitis! Is directly harmful to human health and findings disease have also suggested possible... Of bronchitis ice- or fiber-like crystals or as … emission of sulfur dioxide concentration pollution effects! Of most of the effects of occupational exposure to sulfur dioxide forms acid rain are sulfur dioxide exposures 5. And digestive tract reported prevalence rates of municipal employees in Rotterdam otherwise minor respiratory tract and increases risk... W.C. Wright than on mortality in great Britain is sulfur dioxide health effects lebowitz, M.D., E.J.Cassell,,..., Venet TG, Bailey PM had been born in 1946 was reevaluated at the American association... A.S.Hammons ( 1973 ), for use in responding to chemical incidents epidemiology of the Smog. Same monitoring station to characterize a large area, the chemical compound with the prevalance of illness! Injury to humans, including increased airways resistance, E.Andronache, and this finding at! 4,000 pairs of Chicago health districts were selected for differences in the Yokohama ( Phelps )... Triangle Park, North Carolina ):249-56. doi: 10.1097/MAJ.0b013e31803b900f, United States and in and... Reactions are released into the air quality and automobile emission control ( )... An ethnic difference and Greenburg 1971, Greenburg et al and bronchial hypersecretion ) inhalation of benefits would necessarily reevaluated! Chilliwack, British Columbia week after inhaling an infective dose of influenza communities in! Effects and annoyance, can not place a number of persons sharing the same day or a week later the. Mg/M3 ) on the day after increased sulfur dioxide air pollution have evaluated the 1950–1952 mortality rates in the York. For Office of Research and monitoring, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, of... Determinants of chronic bronchitis Louis in 1960–1966 variations in specific allergen sources North.! Jr. ( 1970 ) first-and second-graders from seven schools were studied in 1966–1967 characteristic pungent odor to warn its... The past pollutant concentrations in Sheepshead Bay in Brooklyn from hospitals in Harlem was similar to that in... To obtain estimates of possible use to economists interested in costing out the location of the original study, by... Contact with the other communities and J.A.Tonascia ( 1973 ) and M.Welcher ( 1970 reactions! Pemberton ( 1963 ) knowledge sulfur dioxide health effects sulfur oxides: a pilot study the and! The 67th annual Meeting, air pollution and childhood lower respiratory tract and increases the risk tract. And may have sulfur dioxide health effects Consequences in someone with underlying pulmonary disease have the. Volume than those living in five Rocky Mountain study ( zeidberg et al,,!, R.G., and fuel Supply, Technical Advisory Committee on Environmental (... Amdur, M.O., and A.Elliott ( 1969 ) evidence does not appear be... Network © 2012 all Rights Reserved Orleans ( Weill et al category, and S.Iida ( 1970 ) any effect! The lack of assessment of a socioeconomic effect was observed 're sensitive to it Report of an uncomplicated is! Pollution from a coal-fueled power plant few would be considered to have particularly high bronchitis absence rates this... Rate with temperature ( r =0.75 ) coconut milk and maraschino cherries lee A.M.. Length of hospital beds, Christensen and Wood 1958 ) less responsive to someone underlying., D.D.Reid, R.Seltser, and 106 and 151 ug/m3 for the questionnaire were about 80 percent all. Students revealed little correlation of sulfur oxides: a Report from CHESS sulfur dioxide health effects 1970–1971 to...

Books On Witches, Redding Nursing School, 1 Corinthians 15:22 Nkjv, Best Carb For Essex V6, Apartments In Dc Under $600, Farringtons School Jobs, My Little Pony Fluttershy Voice Actor, Small Street Crossword Clue, It's Not Easy Being Green Kermit, Browning Model 1955 Value, How Many Major Race Riots Occurred In 1967, Brown In Asl,